Periodontology deals with treating soft and hard tissues surrounding teeth. Dental plaque is viserd layer, which is comprised of food particles and bacteria accumulating heavily in the connection of teeth and gingiva.

When teeth aren't brushed regularly, minerals in saliva also aggregate on teeth forming tartars. Tartars cannot be cleared by brushing. Bacteria on the dental plaque and tartar are detrimental to the gingiva, capillary vessels in the gingiva swell due to inflammation, and gingiva bleeds if touched. The color of healthy gingiva is old rose. As a consequence of gingival diseases, gingiva swells, and gains an oedematous, shiny and red look. Cleaning the dental plaque and tartar is very important for preventing gingival diseases.


While tartar cleaning is sufficient during early gingivitis, at further stages (periodontitis) many other treatments are applied such as root face leveling, flap operations, and soft tissue grafts.

Some feel uncomfortable to laugh because of the gingival look. Periodontology also includes other operations like extending crown height and correcting smiling line.

Causes of gingival diseases

  • Genetics
  • Smoking
  • Hormonal changes
  • Poor mouth hygiene
  • Drug use
  • Diabetes
  • Poorly built crown and bridges
  • Malnutrition
  • Stress and teeth grinding

Symptoms of gingival disease

  • Itching and irritated teeth
  • Inflammation coming from gingival cavity
  • Gingival recession and dangling of teeth
  • Black zones on teeth and gingiva sides
  • Bad breath and bad taste in mouth
  • Burn, rubescence and swelling in gingiva